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J Urol. 2010 Feb;183(2):673-7. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.10.013.

Validation of a high fidelity adult ureteroscopy and renoscopy simulator.

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Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine Urologic Consortium, Metro Health Hospital, Wyoming, Michigan 49519, USA.



Surgical simulation technology may efficiently train and accurately assess the acquisition of many skills. Surgical simulators often lack realism and can be expensive at $3,000 to more than $60,000. We assessed the face, content and construct validity of a newly developed, anatomically accurate, reasonably priced high fidelity ureteroscopy and renoscopy trainer.


A total of 46 participants, including attending urologists, urology residents, medical students and industry representatives, assessed the face and content validity of the simulator using a standard questionnaire. Ten experienced ureteroscopists with greater than 30 procedures per year and 10 novice ureteroscopists with 0 were assessed on the ability to perform flexible ureteroscopy, renoscopy and intrarenal basket extraction of a lower pole calculus using the adult ureteroscopy trainer (Ideal Anatomic Modeling, Holt, Michigan). Subject performance was assessed by an experienced ureteroscopist using a checklist, global rating scale and time to task completion.


Of participants 100% rated the trainer as realistic and easy to use, and thought it was a good training tool, 98% thought that it would serve as a good training format and 96% would recommend it to urology trainees. All participants recommended it for use in residency programs and 96% would or would have used it during residency. Only 37.5% vs 100% of experienced vs novice ureteroscopists would use it to practice. Of participants 9% foresaw a problem with the trainer. On the trainer experienced ureteroscopists scored significantly higher on the global rating scale (mean +/- SD 33.1 +/- 1.3 vs 15.0 +/- 2.7, p <0.0001) and checklist (4.1 +/- 1.0 vs 2.4 +/- 1.1, p = 0.004), and required less time to complete the task (141.2 +/- 40.1 vs 447.2 +/- 301.7 seconds, p = 0.01).


Our preliminary study suggests the face, content and construct validity of the adult ureteroscopy trainer as a high fidelity ureteroscopy and renoscopy trainer.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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