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Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010 Jan;11(1):9-17. doi: 10.1038/nrn2754.

Sex differences in molecular neuroscience: from fruit flies to humans.

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Department of Genetics and Development, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, SE-75236, Sweden.


A plethora of discoveries relating to sex influences on brain function is rapidly moving this field into the spotlight for most areas of neuroscience. The domain of molecular or genetic neuroscience is no exception. The goal of this article is to highlight key developments concerning sex-based dimorphisms in molecular neuroscience, describe control mechanisms regulating these differences, address the implications of these dimorphisms for normal and abnormal brain function and discuss what these advances mean for future work in the field. The overriding conclusion is that, as for neuroscience in general, molecular neuroscience has to take into account potential sex influences that might modify signalling pathways.

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