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J Lipid Res. 2010 May;51(5):1085-92. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M003673. Epub 2009 Dec 17.

Chlorinated lipid species in activated human neutrophils: lipid metabolites of 2-chlorohexadecanal.

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Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.


Neutrophils are important in the host response against invading pathogens. One chemical defense mechanism employed by neutrophils involves the production of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived HOCl. 2-Chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA) is a naturally occurring lipid product of HOCl targeting the vinyl ether bond of plasmalogens. Previous studies have shown that exogenously-added 2-ClHDA is oxidized to 2-chlorohexadecanoic acid (2-ClHA) and reduced to 2-chlorohexadecanol (2-ClHOH) by endothelial cells. These studies show that both 2-ClHA and 2-ClHOH are produced in activated neutrophils in an MPO- and time-dependent manner and are released by neutrophils into media. 2-ClHDA levels peak following 30 min of phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate stimulation. In contrast, 2-ClHA and 2-ClHOH levels steadily increased over 60 min, suggesting a precursor-product relationship between 2-ClHDA and both 2-ClHA and 2-ClHOH. Additional experiments using wild-type CHO.K1 and CHO.K1 cells deficient in fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH), FAA.K1A, demonstrated that 2-ClHDA oxidation to 2-ClHA is dependent on FALDH activity. Furthermore, mice exposed to intranasal Sendai virus displayed lung neutrophil recruitment, as well as elevated 2-ClHA levels in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage compared with control-treated mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate, for the first time, that metabolites of 2-ClHDA are produced both in vivo as well as in isolated human neutrophils.

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