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BMC Proc. 2009 Dec 15;3 Suppl 7:S37.

Armitage's trend test for genome-wide association analysis: one-sided or two-sided?

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Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Georgia State University, 750 COE, 7th Floor, 30 Pryor Street, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, USA.


The importance of considering confounding due to population stratification in genome-wide association analysis using case-control designs has been a source of debate. Armitage's trend test, together with some other methods developed from it, can correct for population stratification to some extent. However, there is a question whether the one-sided or the two-sided alternative hypothesis is appropriate, or to put it another way, whether examining both the one-sided and the two-sided alternative hypotheses can give more information. The dataset for Problem 1 of Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 provides us with a chance to address this question. Because it is a part of a combined sample from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) and the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA), the results from the combined sample can be used as references. To test this aim, the last 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 9, which contain the common genetic variant at the TRAF1-C5 locus, were examined by conducting Armitage's trend tests. Examining the two-sided alternative hypothesis shows that SNPs rs12380341 (p = 9.7 x 10-11) and rs872863 (p = 1.7 x 10-15), along with six SNPs across the TRAF1-C5 locus, rs1953126, rs10985073, rs881375, rs3761847, rs10760130, and rs2900180 (p~1 x 10-7), are significantly associated with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive rheumatoid arthritis. But examining the one-sided alternative hypothesis that the minor allele is positively associated with the disease shows that only those six SNPs across the TRAF1-C5 locus are significantly associated with the disease (p~1 x 10-8), which is consistent with the results from the combined sample of the NARAC and the EIRA.


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