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J Cell Mol Med. 2011 Aug;15(8):1645-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00987.x. Epub 2009 Dec 8.

Growth factors in ischemic stroke.

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Dipartimento di Scienze Neurologiche, Dino Ferrari Centre, IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.


Data from pre-clinical and clinical studies provide evidence that colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and other growth factors (GFs) can improve stroke outcome by reducing stroke damage through their anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects, and by promoting angiogenesis and neurogenesis. This review provides a critical and up-to-date literature review on CSF use in stroke. We searched for experimental and clinical studies on haemopoietic GFs such as granulocyte CSF, erythropoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor (SCF), vascular endothelial GF, stromal cell-derived factor-1╬▒ and SCF in ischemic stroke. We also considered studies on insulin-like growth factor-1 and neurotrophins. Despite promising results from animal models, the lack of data in human beings hampers efficacy assessments of GFs on stroke outcome. We provide a comprehensive and critical view of the present knowledge about GFs and stroke, and an overview of ongoing and future prospects.

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