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Clin Exp Immunol. 2010 May;160(2):185-98. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.04074.x. Epub 2009 Dec 15.

An alpha-galactosylceramide C20:2 N-acyl variant enhances anti-inflammatory and regulatory T cell-independent responses that prevent type 1 diabetes.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Autoimmune Diabetes, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

Abstract

Protection from type 1 diabetes (T1D), a T helper type 1 (Th1)-mediated disease, is achievable in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice by treatment with alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) glycolipids that stimulate CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNK T) cells. While we have reported previously that the C20:2 N-acyl variant of alpha-GalCer elicits a Th2-biased cytokine response and protects NOD mice from T1D more effectively than a form of alpha-GalCer that induces mixed Th1 and Th2 responses, it remained to determine whether this protection is accompanied by heightened anti-inflammatory responses. We show that treatment of NOD mice with C20:2 diminished the activation of 'inflammatory' interleukin (IL)-12 producing CD11c(high)CD8+ myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and augmented the function of 'tolerogenic' DCs more effectively than treatment with the prototypical iNKT cell activator KRN7000 (alpha-GalCer C26:0) that induces Th1- and Th2-type responses. These findings correlate with a reduced capacity of C20:2 to sustain the early transactivation of T, B and NK cells. They may also explain our observation that C20:2 activated iNK T cells depend less than KRN7000 activated iNK T cells upon regulation by regulatory T cells for cytokine secretion and protection from T1D. The enhanced anti-inflammatory properties of C20:2 relative to KRN7000 suggest that C20:2 should be evaluated further as a drug to induce iNK T cell-mediated protection from T1D in humans.

PMID:
20015094
PMCID:
PMC2857941
DOI:
10.1111/j.1365-2249.2009.04074.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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