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Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;339:177-200. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-02175-6_9.

Vpr and its interactions with cellular proteins.

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Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 15 North Medical Drive East #2100-Room 2520, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.


Like most viral regulatory proteins, HIV-1 Vpr and homologous proteins from primate lentiviruses are small and multifunctional. They are associated with a plethora of effects and functions, including induction of cell cycle arrest in the G(2) phase, induction of apoptosis, transactivation, enhancement of the fidelity of reverse transcription, and nuclear import of viral DNA in macrophages and other nondividing cells. This review focuses on the cellular proteins that have been reported to interact with Vpr and their significance with respect to the known functions and effects of Vpr on cells and on viral replication.

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