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Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2007 Aug;20(3):255-63. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-984870.

Management of locally advanced primary and recurrent rectal cancer.

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Department of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


Treatment for patients with locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer differs significantly from patients with rectal cancer restricted to the mesorectum. Adequate preoperative imaging of the pelvis is therefore important to identify those patients who are candidates for multimodality treatment, including preoperative chemoradiation protocols, intraoperative radiotherapy, and extended surgical resections. Much effort should be made to select patients with these advanced tumors for treatment in specialized referral centers. This has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality and improve long-term survival rates. In this article, we review the best treatment options for patients with locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer. We also emphasize the necessity of a multidisciplinary team, including a radiologist, radiation oncologist, urologist, surgical oncologist, plastic surgeon, and gynecologist in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with these pelvic tumors.


Primary locally advanced rectal cancer; radiotherapy; recurrent rectal cancer; surgery

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