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Appl Opt. 2009 Dec 10;48(35):6670-83. doi: 10.1364/AO.48.006670.

Simple and accurate expressions for diffuse reflectance of semi-infinite and two-layer absorbing and scattering media.

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University of California, Los Angeles 90095-1597, USA.


We present computationally efficient and accurate semiempirical models of light transfer suitable for real-time diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The models predict the diffuse reflectance of both (i) semi-infinite homogeneous and (ii) two-layer media exposed to normal and collimated light. The two-layer medium consisted of a plane-parallel slab of finite thickness over a semi-infinite layer with identical index of refraction but different absorption and scattering properties. The model accounted for absorption and anisotropic scattering, as well as for internal reflection at the medium/air interface. All media were assumed to be nonemitting, strongly forward scattering, with indices of refraction between 1.00 and 1.44 and transport single-scattering albedos between 0.50 and 0.99. First, simple analytical expressions for the diffuse reflectance of the semi-infinite and two-layer media considered were derived using the two-flux approximation. Then, parameters appearing in the analytical expression previously derived were instead fitted to match results from more accurate Monte Carlo simulations. A single semiempirical parameter was sufficient to relate the diffuse reflectance to the radiative properties and thickness of the semi-infinite and two-layer media. The present model can be used for a wide range of applications including noninvasive diagnosis of biological tissue.

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