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J Immunol. 2010 Jan 15;184(2):736-45. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0900726. Epub 2009 Dec 11.

Nucleotide oligomerization binding domain-like receptor signaling enhances dendritic cell-mediated cross-priming in vivo.

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Department of Immunology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita, Japan.


Nucleotide oligomerization binding domain (Nod)-like receptors are critical cytosolic sensors for the recognition of bacterial peptidoglycan. However, their role in the induction of dendritic cell (DC)-mediated cross-priming remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that injecting ligands for Nod1 and Nod2 along with Ag into wild-type mice significantly enhanced the cross-priming of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells by CD8alpha+ DCs, as assessed from the expansion of IFN-gamma+ CD8+ T cells, CTL activity against Ag-pulsed targets, and the rejection of transplanted tumors expressing the cognate Ag. The enhancement of CD8alpha+ DC-mediated cross-priming was likely due to the upregulation of Ag cross-presentation and of costimulatory molecules. Our findings collectively indicate that Nod1/2 signaling is critical for the optimal induction of DC cross-priming in vivo, which may offer an alternative therapeutic pathway in cancer and hosts refractory to TLR signals or paralyzed by viral evasion strategy.

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