Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Endocrinology. 2010 Feb;151(2):766-73. doi: 10.1210/en.2009-0875. Epub 2009 Dec 11.

Use of mutant mouse lines to investigate origin of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 neurons: lineage independent of the adenohypophysis.

Author information

Cellular and Developmental Neurobiology Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorder and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


Mutant mouse lines have been used to study the development of specific neuronal populations and brain structures as well as behaviors. In this report, single- and double-mutant mice were used to examine the lineage of GnRH-1 cells. GnRH is essential for vertebrate reproduction, with either GnRH-1 or GnRH-3 controlling release of gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary, depending on the species. It is clear that the neuroendocrine GnRH cells migrate from extracentral nervous system locations into the forebrain. However, the embryonic origin of GnRH-1 and GnRH-3 cells is controversial and has been suggested to be nasal placode, adenohypophyseal (anterior pituitary) placode, or neural crest, again dependent on the species examined. We found that mutant mice with either missing or disrupted anterior pituitaries (Gli2(-/-), Gli1(-/-)Gli2(-/-), and Lhx3(-/-)) exhibit a normal GnRH-1 neuronal population and that these cells are still found associated with the developing vomeronasal organ. These results indicate that in mice, GnRH-1 cells develop independent of the adenohypophyseal placode and are associated early with the formation of the nasal placode.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center