Send to

Choose Destination
Int J Pharm. 2010 Mar 15;387(1-2):79-86. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2009.12.011. Epub 2009 Dec 16.

Determination of surface heterogeneity of D-mannitol by sessile drop contact angle and finite concentration inverse gas chromatography.

Author information

Surfaces and Particle Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK.


The sensitivity of two techniques in tracking changes in surface energetics was investigated for a crystalline excipient, D-mannitol. Macroscopic crystals of D-mannitol were grown from saturated water solution by slow cooling, and sessile drop contact angle was employed to measure the anisotropic surface energy. The facet-specific surface energy was consistent with localised hydroxyl group concentrations determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and was also in excellent agreement with the surface energy distribution of the powder form of mannitol measured via a new methodology using inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at finite concentrations. The gamma(SV)(d) was found to vary between 39.5 mJ/m(2) and 44.1 mJ/m(2) for contact angle and between 40 mJ/m(2) and 49 mJ/m(2) for IGC measurements. We report here, a high level of surface heterogeneity on the native mannitol crystal surfaces. When the surfaces of both D-mannitol samples (powder and large single crystals) were modified by dichlorodimethylsilane to induce surface hydrophobicity, both IGC and contact angle revealed a homogeneous surface due to functionalisation of mannitol crystal surface with methyl groups resulting in gamma(SV)(d) of approximately 34 mJ/m(2). It was shown that both IGC and contact angle techniques are able to detect surface chemical variations and detailed surface energetic distribution.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center