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Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010 Feb;35(2):131-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.09.021. Epub 2009 Dec 16.

Bactericidal activity of daptomycin versus vancomycin in the presence of human albumin against vancomycin-susceptible but tolerant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with daptomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1-2microg/mL.

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1
Microbiology Department, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

This study explored the influence of vancomycin tolerance and protein binding on the bactericidal activity of vancomycin versus daptomycin (protein binding 36.9% vs. 91.7%, respectively) against four vancomycin-tolerant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) [minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC)=0.5/16, 1/32, 2/32 and 1/32microg/mL for vancomycin and 1/1, 1/2, 2/2 and 2/4microg/mL for daptomycin]. Killing curves were performed with vancomycin/daptomycin concentrations equal to serum peak concentrations (C(max)) (65.70/98.60microg/mL) and trough concentrations (C(min)) (7.90/9.13microg/mL) in the presence and absence of a physiological human albumin concentration (4g/dL), controlled with curves with the theoretical free drug fraction of vancomycin/daptomycin C(max) (41.45/8.18microg/mL) and C(min) (4.98/0.76microg/mL). Vancomycin C(max) and C(min) concentrations, regardless of the media, showed a bacteriostatic profile not reaching a reduction of 99% or 99.9% of the initial inocula during the 24-h experimental time period. Daptomycin antibacterial profiles significantly differed when testing C(max) and C(min). C(max) was rapidly bactericidal (< or =4h) with >5 log(10) reduction in the initial inocula for all strains, regardless of the presence or not of albumin or the use of concentrations similar to free C(max). C(min) exhibited similar final colony counts at 0h and 24h in curves with albumin, but with >3 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL reduction at < or =4h for strains with an MIC of 1microg/mL and ca. 2 logCFU/mL reduction at < or =6h for strains with an MIC of 2microg/mL. This activity was significantly higher than the activity of the free C(min) fraction. The results of this study reinforce the idea that pharmacodynamics using concentrations calculated using reported protein binding are unreliable. Daptomycin exhibited rapid antibacterial activity against vancomycin-tolerant MRSA isolates even against those with high daptomycin MICs in the presence of physiological albumin concentrations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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