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Eur Respir J. 2010 Jul;36(1):89-95. doi: 10.1183/09031936.00129509. Epub 2009 Dec 8.

Hedgehog-interacting protein is a COPD susceptibility gene: the Rotterdam Study.

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Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University and Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.


The Hedgehog signalling pathway plays an important role in lung morphogenesis and cellular responses to lung injury. A genome-wide association study has demonstrated that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the Hedgehog-interacting protein (Hip) gene, SNP identifiers rs1828591 and rs13118928, are associated with risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to validate the observed association between genetic variation near the Hip gene and COPD, and to investigate whether risk estimates were modified by smoking behaviour. The association between the Hip gene SNPs and COPD was investigated in the Rotterdam Study by logistic regression analyses, adjusted for several covariates. In addition, an association meta-analysis was performed that included data from the genome-wide association study on COPD. Both SNPs were significantly associated with risk of COPD (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.91). Homozygosity for the minor G allele resulted in a decreased risk of COPD of approximately 40% (95% CI 0.47-0.78). There was a significant interaction with the number of pack-years of smoking (p = 0.004). The meta-analysis yielded an odds ratio for COPD of 0.80 per additional G allele (p = 3.4 x 10(-9)). Genetic variation near the Hip gene was significantly associated with risk of COPD, depending on the number of pack-years of smoking.

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