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Pharmacol Res. 2010 Apr;61(4):269-80. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.11.012. Epub 2009 Dec 5.

Molecular targets and regulators of cardiac hypertrophy.

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JSS College of Pharmacy(1) (Off campus of JSS University, Mysore), Ooty, Tamilnadu, India. ahuja


Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the main ways in which cardiomyocytes respond to mechanical and neurohormonal stimuli. It enables myocytes to increase their work output, which improves cardiac pump function. Although cardiac hypertrophy may initially represent an adaptive response of the myocardium, ultimately, it often progresses to ventricular dilatation and heart failure which is one of the leading causes of mortality in the western world. A number of signaling modulators that influence gene expression, apoptosis, cytokine release and growth factor signaling, etc. are known to regulate heart. By using genetic and cellular models of cardiac hypertrophy it has been proved that pathological hypertrophy can be prevented or reversed. This finding has promoted an enormous drive to identify novel and specific regulators of hypertrophy. In this review, we have discussed the various molecular signal transduction pathways and the regulators of hypertrophic response which includes calcineurin, cGMP, NFAT, natriuretic peptides, histone deacetylase, IL-6 cytokine family, Gq/G11 signaling, PI3K, MAPK pathways, Na/H exchanger, RAS, polypeptide growth factors, ANP, NO, TNF-alpha, PPAR and JAK/STAT pathway, microRNA, Cardiac angiogenesis and gene mutations in adult heart. Augmented knowledge of these signaling pathways and their interactions may potentially be translated into pharmacological therapies for the treatment of various cardiac diseases that are adversely affected by hypertrophy. The purpose of this review is to provide the current knowledge about the molecular pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy, with special emphasis on novel researches and investigations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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