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J Anim Sci. 2010 Mar;88(3):912-21. doi: 10.2527/jas.2009-2479. Epub 2009 Dec 4.

Gluconeogenesis differs in developing chick embryos derived from small compared with typical size broiler breeder eggs.

Author information

1
Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park 20742, USA.

Abstract

We hypothesized that, as the supply of preformed glucose diminishes during development, the embryo would transition to a greater rate of gluconeogenesis (GNG) and that GNG would be greater in embryos from small vs. typical size eggs. Gluconeogenesis by embryos from small (51.1 +/- 3.46 g) and typical size (65 +/- 4.35 g) broiler breeder eggs was measured by dosing [(13)C(6)]glucose (15 mgxegg(-1)) into the chorio-allantoic fluid for 3 consecutive days to achieve isotopic steady-state before blood collection on embryonic day (e) 12, e14, e16, and e18 (4 to 5 eggsxsize(-1)xd(-1)). The (13)C-Mass isotopomer enrichment of blood glucose was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On e14, e16, and e18, but not on e12, embryos from small eggs weighed less (P < 0.05) than typical size eggs. For both sizes of eggs, blood glucose concentration, glucose entry rate (g.d(-1)), and Cori cycling and glucose (13)C-recycling (% of entry rate) increased (P < 0.05) with development. On e12 and e14, rates of glucose entry and Cori cycle flux were greater (P < 0.05) for embryos from small eggs. When standardized to BW (g.100 g of BW(-1)xd(-1)), glucose entry and Cori and non-Cori cycle fluxes were greater for embryos from small eggs. From e12 through e18, blood concentrations of gluconeogenic AA (threonine, glutamine, arginine, proline, isoleucine, and valine) were 25 to 48% less (P < 0.01) in embryos from small eggs. In conclusion, embryos from small eggs exhibit greater rates of GNG earlier in development compared with typical size eggs and, perhaps as a consequence, their reduced embryonic growth may result from diverting greater supplies of AA toward GNG.

PMID:
19966165
DOI:
10.2527/jas.2009-2479
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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