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Urology. 2010 Feb;75(2):321-7. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2009.09.048. Epub 2009 Dec 4.

Gender-related differences in patients with stage I to III upper tract urothelial carcinoma: results from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.

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Cancer Prognosis and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montréal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.



To examine the effect of gender in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) stage at nephroureterectomy (NU), as well as on cancer-specific mortality (CSM) after NU in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I-III UTUC.


Our analyses relied on 2903 (59.9%) males and 1947 (40.1%) females who underwent an NU for pT(1-3)N(0/x)M(0) UTUC between 1988 and 2006, within 17 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models examined the effect of gender on stage and grade distribution at NU. Subsequently, cumulative incidence plots explored the impact of gender on CSM rates, after accounting for other-cause mortality (OCM). Finally, competing-risks regression models tested the independent predictor status of gender in CSM analyses. Covariates consisted of pT stage, pN stage, tumor grade, primary tumor location, type and year of surgery, age, and race.


Relative to males, females had a higher proportion of pT(3) UTUC (43.1% vs 39%; P = .02) and a higher proportion of grade III/IV UTUC (63.8% vs 59.8%; P = .04) at NU. The female gender represented an independent predictor of pT(3) UTUC at NU (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.15; P = .03). After accounting for OCM, CSM rates in females were higher than those in males (HR: 1.18; P = .03). However, in multivariable competing-risks regression models, no statistically significant differences in survival were recorded between males and females (HR: 1.07; P = .4).


Females are more likely to have more advanced pathologic T stage and higher tumor grade at NU than males. After accounting for OCM, stage, grade, and noncancer characteristics, gender no longer affects CSM.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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