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Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010 Jan;23(1):49-57. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-23-1-0049.

The AvrM effector from flax rust has a structured C-terminal domain and interacts directly with the M resistance protein.

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Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, 111 Koshland Hall, University of California, Berkley 94720-3102, USA.


In plant immunity, recognition of pathogen effectors by plant resistance proteins leads to the activation of plant defenses and a localized cell death response. The AvrM effector from flax rust is a small secreted protein that is recognized by the M resistance protein in flax. Here, we investigate the mechanism of M-AvrM recognition and show that these two proteins directly interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay, and that this interaction correlates with the recognition specificity observed for each of the different AvrM variants. We further characterize this interaction by demonstrating that the C-terminal domain of AvrM is required for M-dependent cell death, and show that this domain also interacts with the M protein in yeast. We investigate the role of C-terminal differences among the different AvrM proteins for their involvement in this interaction and establish that M recognition is hindered by an additional 34 amino acids present at the C terminus of several AvrM variants. Structural characterization of recombinant AvrM-A protein revealed a globular C-terminal domain that dimerizes.

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