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Cardiol J. 2009;16(6):545-52.

Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on systemic inflammation and neurohormonal pathways in heart failure.

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Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.



The effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on systemic inflammation and neurohormonal alterations associated with heart failure is not well characterized. Accordingly, we aimed to assess the long term effects of CRT on systemic inflammation and neurohormonal factors in heart failure patients.


In 47 HF patients (NYHA III-IV) we evaluated, at baseline and after one year of CRT: TNF-alpha, TNF soluble receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2), insulin-like growth factor-1alpha (IGF-1alpha), adiponectin, norepinephrine, pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP), N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and angiotensin II, NYHA functional class, quality of life (the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire), a 6-minute walk test and an echocardiogram. Long-term CRT decreased activation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) only in patients with reverse remodelling. It failed to prevent a decline in adiponectin levels, regardless of reverse remodelling. NT-proBNP remained unchanged in patients with reverse remodelling, whereas its levels increased in those without reverse remodelling. IGF-1alpha increased with CRT, whereas CRT had no effect on pro-ANP and inflammatory markers.


Long-term CRT is associated with decreased RAS activation and stabilization of NT-proBNP in heart failure patients with reverse remodelling. Long-term CRT, with or without reverse remodelling, does not affect systemic inflammation and fails to prevent a decline in adiponectin.

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