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Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2010 Jan;40(1):81-100. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2009.09.007.

Vestibular disease in dogs and cats.

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Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.


The vestibular system is the major sensory (special proprioceptive) system that, along with the general proprioceptive and visual systems, maintains balance. Clinical signs of vestibular disease include asymmetric ataxia, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. Neuroanatomic localization of observed vestibular signs to either the peripheral or central components of the vestibular system is paramount to the management of the patient with vestibular dysfunction, as the etiology, diagnostic approaches, and prognoses are dependent on the neuroanatomic diagnosis. This article reviews functional vestibular neuroanatomy as well as the diagnosis and treatment of common causes of small animal vestibular disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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