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J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 29;285(5):3181-90. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.083907. Epub 2009 Nov 23.

siah-1 Protein is necessary for high glucose-induced glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase nuclear accumulation and cell death in Muller cells.

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Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.


The translocation and accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in the nucleus has closely been associated with cell death induction. However, the mechanism of this process has not been completely understood. The E3 ubiquitin ligase siah-1 (seven in absentia homolog 1) has recently been identified as a potential shuttle protein to transport GAPDH from the cytosol to the nucleus. Previously, we have demonstrated that elevated glucose levels induce GAPDH nuclear accumulation in retinal Müller cells. Therefore, this study investigated the role of siah-1 in high glucose-induced GAPDH nuclear translocation and subsequent cell death in retinal Müller cells. High glucose significantly increased siah-1 expression within 12 h. Under hyperglycemic conditions, siah-1 formed a complex with GAPDH and was predominantly localized in the nucleus of Müller cells. siah-1 knockdown using 50 nm siah-1 small interfering RNA significantly decreased high glucose-induced GAPDH nuclear accumulation at 24 h by 43.8 +/- 4.0%. Further, knockdown of siah-1 prevented high glucose-induced cell death of Müller cells potentially by inhibiting p53 phosphorylation consistent with previous observations, indicating that nuclear GAPDH induces cell death via p53 activation. Therefore, inhibition of GAPDH nuclear translocation and accumulation by targeting siah-1 promotes Müller cell survival under hyperglycemic conditions.

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