Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Rev Nephrol. 2009 Dec;5(12):677-89. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2009.173.

Emerging risk factors and markers of chronic kidney disease progression.

Author information

Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Medical Genetics, Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common condition with an increasing prevalence. A number of comorbidities are associated with CKD and prognosis is poor, with many patients experiencing disease progression. Recognizing the factors associated with CKD progression enables high-risk patients to be identified and given more intensive treatment if necessary. The identification of new predictive markers might improve our understanding of the pathogenesis and progression of CKD. This Review discusses a number of emerging factors and markers for which epidemiological evidence from prospective studies indicates an association with progression of CKD. The following factors and markers are discussed: asymmetric dimethylarginine, factors involved in calcium-phosphate metabolism, adrenomedullin, A-type natriuretic peptide, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, liver-type fatty acid binding protein, kidney injury molecule 1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, apolipoprotein A-IV, adiponectin and some recently identified genetic polymorphisms. Additional epidemiological and experimental data are required before these markers can be broadly used for the prediction of CKD progression and before the risk factors can be considered as potential drug targets in clinical interventional trials.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center