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Neurol India. 2009 Sep-Oct;57(5):617-21. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.57818.

Gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations located in eloquent regions of the brain.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130, USA.



Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective treatment strategy for selected group of patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).


The aim of this study was to evaluate the obliteration rates, complications, and patient outcomes after Gamma knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) located in eloquent regions of the brain with an emphasis on neurological morbidity.


Between 2000 and December 2005, 37 patients with AVMs in eloquent locations (sensory, motor, speech, visual cortex, basal ganglia, and brain stem) underwent stereotactic radiosurgery. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of these patients to asses the outcomes. Of the 37 patients, only two patients had prior embolization. Three underwent prospective staged volume radiosurgery. Two patients needed redo-radiosurgery for residual AVM. Mean target volume was 9.1 cc. Three lesions had nidus volume more than 20 cc. Average marginal dose was 18.75 Gy. The median duration of follow-up was 23 months (range, 6-60 months). 15 patients had follow-up of more than 36 months.


A total of 15 patients had follow-up of more than 36 months, thus available for evaluation of angiographic obliteration rates. Complete angiographic obliteration was documented in seven patients (46.7%). Four patients experienced hemorrhage during the latency period. One patient who had subsequent hemorrhage on follow-up developed worsening of neurological deficit. One patient developed significant sensory symptoms which resolved after steroids. No additional clinical deterioration related to treatment was noted in rest of the patients.


AVMs located in eloquent and in deep locations can be treated safely with stereotactic radiosurgery with acceptable obliteration rates and minimal morbidity.

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