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Sleep Med Rev. 2010 Jun;14(3):191-203. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2009.07.006. Epub 2009 Nov 25.

Mortality associated with short sleep duration: The evidence, the possible mechanisms, and the future.

Author information

1
Center for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 125 South 31st Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. grandner@upenn.edu

Abstract

This review of the scientific literature examines the widely observed relationship between sleep duration and mortality. As early as 1964, data have shown that 7-h sleepers experience the lowest risks for all-cause mortality, whereas those at the shortest and longest sleep durations have significantly higher mortality risks. Numerous follow-up studies from around the world (e.g., Japan, Israel, Sweden, Finland, the United Kingdom) show similar relationships. We discuss possible mechanisms, including cardiovascular disease, obesity, physiologic stress, immunity, and socioeconomic status. We put forth a social-ecological framework to explore five possible pathways for the relationship between sleep duration and mortality, and we conclude with a four-point agenda for future research.

PMID:
19932976
PMCID:
PMC2856739
DOI:
10.1016/j.smrv.2009.07.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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