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Neuromuscul Disord. 2010 Jan;20(1):16-20. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2009.10.007. Epub 2009 Nov 22.

Kinematics of gait in golden retriever muscular dystrophy.

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Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109, USA. <>


The goal of this study was to quantify the two-dimensional kinematics of pathologic gait during over-ground walking at a self-selected speed at the stifle (knee) and hock (ankle) joints in six Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dogs and six carrier littermates (controls). We found that GRMD dogs walked significantly slower than controls (p<0.01). At the stifle joint, both groups displayed similar ROM (range of motion), but compared to controls, GRMD dogs walked with the stifle joint relatively more extended. At the hock joint, GRMD dogs displayed less ROM (range of motion) and walked with the joint relatively less flexed compared to controls. We controlled for gait speed in all analyses, so the differences we observed in joint kinematics between groups cannot be attributed solely to the slower walking speed of the GRMD dogs. This is the first kinematic study of gait in the GRMD dog, an important step in using this model in pre-clinical trials.

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