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Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010 May;22(5):e152-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01426.x. Epub 2009 Nov 25.

Prokineticin-1 evokes secretory and contractile activity in rat small intestine.

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1
Enterology Research Team, Drug Discovery, Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, LLC, Spring House, PA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Prokineticins 1 and 2 (PROK1 and PROK2) are so named because they contract gastrointestinal smooth muscle, yet little else is known about their role in gastrointestinal function. Therefore, we used a combination of approaches to elucidate the mechanisms by which PROK1 alters ileal contractility and secretion in rats.

METHODS:

RT-PCR and immunofluorescence were used to determine PROK and receptor (PK-R) mRNA levels and PK-R1 localization, respectively. Upper GI transit and fluid secretion were determined in vivo. Contractility and intestinal epithelial ion transport were assessed in isolated ileal segments.

KEY RESULTS:

In the gastric fundus, PROK1 mRNA is highly expressed (70-fold >PROK2 mRNA) whereas the ileum has the highest mRNA expression of its receptor. PK-R1 immunoreactivity is visualized in ileal crypt cells, and in submucosal and myenteric neurons. In ileal segments, PROK1 evokes biphasic contractile responses consisting of an early, TTX-sensitive response (EC(50) = 87.8 nmol L(-1)) followed by a late, TTX-insensitive (EC(50) = 72.4 nmol L(-1)) component that is abolished in mucosa-free preparations. Oral administration of PROK1 enhances small bowel transit (111 +/- 3% of control) and fluid secretion (340 +/- 90% of control) and in muscle-stripped ileal preparations increases short-circuit current (EC(50) = 8.2 nmol L(-1)) in a TTX-insensitive manner. The PROK1-evoked Cl- secretion is reduced by piroxicam (non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor), and a prostaglandin EP(4) receptor antagonist (AH23848), but not a thromboxane receptor antagonist (GR32191B).

CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES:

These results demonstrate that PROK1 has oral prokinetic and secretogogue activity and that it acts on the intestinal mucosa via PK-R1 and prostaglandin receptors to mediate these effects.

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