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Cancer Sci. 2010 Jan;101(1):22-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01373.x. Epub 2009 Sep 26.

Current status of chemotherapy in risk-adapted management for metastatic testicular germ cell cancer.

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Department of Urology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.


Today, approximately 80% of men with metastatic testicular cancer can be cured with chemotherapy combined with the appropriate surgery. The improved treatment outcome has led to the stratification of patients with metastatic disease by the consensus prognostic index; the International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group classification. Currently, the first-line chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) remains the standard management of metastatic testicular cancer. Three cycles of BEP for good-prognosis patients and four cycles of BEP for intermediate- and poor-prognosis patients are the standard first-line chemotherapy. To achieve the optimal outcome, BEP should be given with appropriate supportive care and risk assessment for toxicity. Although no universal prognostic criteria have been defined for the recurrent or refractory disease, the risk-adapted approach may clarify the role of ifosfamide- and paclitaxel-containing conventional-dose chemotherapy or high-dose chemotherapy in the second-line setting. Several investigators reported recent improvement of treatment outcome of testicular cancer patients, especially those with poor prognosis. Along with the progress in chemotherapy, the risk-adapted management at experienced hospitals seems to be responsible for the recent progress in treatment outcome.

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