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Clin Res Cardiol. 2010 Feb;99(2):107-13. doi: 10.1007/s00392-009-0092-3.

Anaemia is an independent predictor of death in patients hospitalized for acute heart failure.

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Applied Cachexia Research, Department of Cardiology, Charité Medical School, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany.



Acute heart failure is associated with a poor prognosis. It is important to identify patients at increased risk of adverse events. The presence of anaemia could help in this regard.


Admission charts of 627 patients (325 female) with acute heart failure were analysed; 182 patients (29%) fulfilled the World Health Organization criteria of anaemia [haemoglobin (Hb) < 13.0 in men, <12.0 g/dl in women], 87 (48%) of them were female. Anaemic patients were older than non-anaemics (p = 0.04), had lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure (both p < 0.05), had higher creatinine (p < 0.01), and stayed longer in hospital (p = 0.0005). Patients were followed-up for a mean of 61 months or until death. A total of 387 patients (61.7%) died during follow-up. Anaemia was an independent predictor of death in this cohort. Patients with moderate or severe anaemia (Hb < 12 in men or <11 g/dl in women) had a significantly increased 12-month mortality after adjusting for age, New York Heart Association class, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and creatinine (hazard ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.0, p = 0.01).


Anaemia is a frequent co-morbidity in patients with acute heart failure. Moderate to severe anaemia is an independent predictor of death in these patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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