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Mol Cell. 2009 Nov 13;36(3):487-99. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.09.030.

Stepwise activation of BAX and BAK by tBID, BIM, and PUMA initiates mitochondrial apoptosis.

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Molecular Oncology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.


While activation of BAX/BAK by BH3-only molecules (BH3s) is essential for mitochondrial apoptosis, the underlying mechanisms remain unsettled. Here we demonstrate that BAX undergoes stepwise structural reorganization leading to mitochondrial targeting and homo-oligomerization. The alpha1 helix of BAX keeps the alpha9 helix engaged in the dimerization pocket, rendering BAX as a monomer in cytosol. The activator BH3s, tBID/BIM/PUMA, attack and expose the alpha1 helix of BAX, resulting in secondary disengagement of the alpha9 helix and thereby mitochondrial insertion. Activator BH3s remain associated with the N-terminally exposed BAX through the BH1 domain to drive homo-oligomerization. BAK, an integral mitochondrial membrane protein, has bypassed the first activation step, explaining why its killing kinetics are faster than those of BAX. Furthermore, death signals initiated at ER induce BIM and PUMA to activate mitochondrial apoptosis. Accordingly, deficiency of Bim/Puma impedes ER stress-induced BAX/BAK activation and apoptosis. Our study provides mechanistic insights regarding the spatiotemporal execution of BAX/BAK-governed cell death.

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