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Drug Saf. 2009;32(12):1109-22. doi: 10.2165/11316640-000000000-00000.

Cisplatin overdose: toxicities and management.

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Department of Oncology, Division of Medical Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada.


Cisplatin is one of the most widely used antineoplastic agents in the treatment of solid tumour and haematological malignancies, including cancers of the testes, ovary, bladder, head and neck, oesophagus, stomach and lung, as well as lymphoma and osteosarcoma. Its non-specific targeting commonly results in adverse effects and toxicities affecting the gastrointestinal, renal, neurological and haematological systems even when administered at standard doses. Since cisplatin-related toxicities are dose-dependent, these may be more pronounced in the setting of a cisplatin overdose, resulting in significant morbidity and/or mortality. The incidence of cisplatin overdoses is unknown; however, early-phase clinical trials utilizing high-dose cisplatin, and case reports in the overdose setting have characterized the clinical features associated with cisplatin overdoses, highlighting some therapeutic strategies for consideration. To date, no published guidelines exist for managing a cisplatin overdose. The major toxicities of a cisplatin overdose include nausea and vomiting, renal insufficiency, electrolyte abnormalities, myelosuppression, ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy, hepatotoxicity and retinopathy. Diarrhoea, pancreatitis, seizures and respiratory failure have also been reported. No specific antidote for cisplatin exists. Key management principles and strategies to lessen toxicities include renoprotection and enhancing drug elimination with aggressive intravenous hydration with or without the use of an osmotic diuretic, and avoidance of nephrotoxic medications. Sodium thiosulfate and plasmapheresis, with or without haemodialysis support, should be strongly considered. Close monitoring of clinical and laboratory parameters, and institution of supportive therapies, including antiemetics and haematopoietic colony stimulating factor support, are warranted. Based on the current literature, experimental therapies such as amifostine, ditiocarb sodium (diethyldithiocarbamate), acetylcysteine, fosfomycin and colestipol are of limited clinical effectiveness and remain investigational. This review serves to highlight the clinical spectrum of toxicities resulting from a cisplatin overdose, to critically appraise the available literature and to present a suggested algorithmic approach for the initial management of a cisplatin overdose.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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