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Mol Genet Metab. 2010 Feb;99(2):160-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2009.10.010. Epub 2009 Oct 20.

PKHD1 sequence variations in 78 children and adults with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease and congenital hepatic fibrosis.

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Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


PKHD1, the gene mutated in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)/congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF), is an exceptionally large and complicated gene that consists of 86 exons and has a number of alternatively spliced transcripts. Its longest open reading frame contains 67 exons that encode a 4074 amino acid protein called fibrocystin or polyductin. The phenotypes caused by PKHD1 mutations are similarly complicated, ranging from perinatally-fatal PKD to CHF presenting in adulthood with mild kidney disease. To date, more than 300 mutations have been described throughout PKHD1. Most reported cohorts include a large proportion of perinatal-onset ARPKD patients; mutation detection rates vary between 42% and 87%. Here we report PKHD1 sequencing results on 78 ARPKD/CHF patients from 68 families. Differing from previous investigations, our study required survival beyond 6 months and included many adults with a CHF-predominant phenotype. We identified 77 PKHD1 variants (41 novel) including 19 truncating, 55 missense, 2 splice, and 1 small in-frame deletion. Using computer-based prediction tools (GVGD, PolyPhen, SNAP), we achieved a mutation detection rate of 79%, ranging from 63% in the CHF-predominant group to 82% in the remaining families. Prediction of the pathogenicity of missense variants will remain challenging until a functional assay is available. In the meantime, use of PKHD1 sequencing data for clinical decisions requires caution, especially when only novel or rare missense variants are identified.

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