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Water Res. 2010 Feb;44(3):729-40. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.10.008. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

Comparison of the disinfection by-product formation potential of treated waters exposed to chlorine and monochloramine.

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Centre for Water Science, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK.


The formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) from chlorination and monochloramination of treated drinking waters was determined. Samples were collected after treatment at 11 water treatment works but before exposure to chlorine or monochloramine. Formation potential tests were carried out to determine the DBPs formed by chlorination and monochloramination. DBPs measured were trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), halonitromethanes (HNMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloaldehydes (HAs), haloketones (HKs) and iodo-THMs (i-THMs). All waters had the potential to form significant levels of all the DBPs measured. Compared to chlorine, monochloramination generally resulted in lower concentrations of DBPs with the exception of 1,1-dichloropropanone. The concentrations of THMs correlated well with the HAAs formed. The impact of bromine on the speciation of the DBPs was determined. The literature findings that higher bromide levels lead to higher concentrations of brominated DBPS were confirmed.

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