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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010 Mar;139(3):543-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.08.022. Epub 2009 Nov 11.

Brain immaturity is associated with brain injury before and after neonatal cardiac surgery with high-flow bypass and cerebral oxygenation monitoring.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Cardiovascular Anesthesiology, Texas Children's Hospital, 6621 Fannin, WT 17417B, Houston, TX 77030, USA. dra@bcm.tmc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

New intraparenchymal brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging is observed in 36% to 73% of neonates after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Brain immaturity in this population is common. We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging before and after neonatal cardiac surgery, using a high-flow cardiopulmonary bypass protocol, hypothesizing that brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging would be associated with brain immaturity.

METHODS:

Cardiopulmonary bypass protocol included 150 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1) flows, pH stat management, hematocrit > 30%, and high-flow antegrade cerebral perfusion. Regional brain oxygen saturation was monitored, with a treatment protocol for regional brain oxygen saturation < 50%. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, consisting of T1-, T2-, and diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy were performed preoperatively, 7 days postoperatively, and at age 3 to 6 months.

RESULTS:

Twenty-four of 67 patients (36%) had new postoperative white matter injury, infarction, or hemorrhage, and 16% had new white matter injury. Associations with preoperative brain injury included low brain maturity score (P = .002). Postoperative white matter injury was associated with single-ventricle diagnosis (P = .02), preoperative white matter injury (P < .001), and low brain maturity score (P = .05). Low brain maturity score was also associated with more severe postoperative brain injury (P = .01). Forty-five patients had a third scan, with a 27% incidence of new minor lesions, but 58% of previous lesions had partially or completely resolved.

CONCLUSIONS:

We observed a significant incidence of both pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging abnormality and an association with brain immaturity. Many lesions resolved in the first 6 months after surgery. Timing of delivery and surgery with bypass could affect the risk of brain injury.

PMID:
19909994
PMCID:
PMC2827639
DOI:
10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.08.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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