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J Infect Dis. 2009 Dec 1;200(11):1650-7. doi: 10.1086/647988.

Selection of parasites with diminished drug susceptibility by amodiaquine-containing antimalarial regimens in Uganda.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Amodiaquine (AQ) is paired with artesunate (AS) or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in recommended antimalarial regimens. It is unclear how readily AQ resistance will be selected with combination chemotherapy.

METHODS:

We collected 61 Plasmodium falciparum samples from a cohort of Ugandan children randomized for treatment with AQ-SP, AS-AQ, or artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for uncomplicated malaria. In vitro susceptibility to monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ) was measured with a histidine-rich protein 2-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and potential resistance-mediating polymorphisms in pfmdr1 were evaluated.

RESULTS:

Parasites collected from patients treated with AQ-SP or AS-AQ within the prior 12 weeks were less susceptible to MDAQ (n = 18; mean of the median inhibitory concentration [IC(50)], 62.9 nmol/L; range, 12.7-158.3 nmol/L) than were parasites from those not treated within 12 weeks (n = 43; mean IC(50), 37.5 nmol/L; range, 6.3-184.7 nmol/L; P=.009) or only from those patients in the treatment arm that did not receive AQ (n = 12; mean IC(50), 28.8 nmol/L; range, 6.3-121.8 nmol/L; P = .004). The proportion of strains with polymorphisms expected to mediate diminished response to AQ (pfmdr1 86Y and 1246Y) increased after AQ therapy, although differences were not statistically significant.

CONCLUSIONS:

Prior therapy selected for diminished response to MDAQ, which suggests that AQ-containing regimens may rapidly lose efficacy in Africa. The mechanism of diminished MDAQ response is not fully explained by known mutations in pfmdr1.

PMID:
19905933
PMCID:
PMC2782860
DOI:
10.1086/647988
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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