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Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2008 Apr;28(2):32-7. doi: 10.4103/0973-3930.43096.

Independent risk factors for amputation in diabetic foot.

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Department of Surgery and Endocrinology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.



Diabetic foot (DF) is the main cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Early recognition and management of risk factors for foot complications may prevent amputations and other adverse outcomes.


At our hospital we have a protocol for the management of patients hospitalized because of DF. We collected clinical and laboratory data, details of diabetes complications, and history of comorbidities in 146 patients who were admitted for management of DF to determine the risk factors of amputation (major or minor) in these patients. We divided these patients into two groups, those whose treatment included amputation and those who were treated conservatively and carried out a comparative analysis of the variables in the two groups.


Major amputation was performed in 5.5% of the patients and minor amputation in 22.6%. Those who required amputation presented a significantly higher (P < 0.05) incidence of nephropathy, history of previous amputation, ischemic diabetic foot and first fasting blood glucose (FBG) > 200 mg/dl after admission. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios in stepwise logistic regression model was 2.64 for nephropathy (95%CI: 1.06 to 6.60; P = 0.03); 3.03 for ischemic diabetic foot (95%CI: 1.28 to 7.18; P = 0.01); and 3.01 for first FBG > 200 after admission (95%CI: 1.32 to 6.83; P= 0.01).


Nephropathy, ischemic diabetic foot, and first FBG > 200 mg/dl are independent predictors of limb amputation in patients hospitalized for DF lesions. In addition to early detection and treatment of foot lesions, early management of risk factors is also important.


Amputation; diabetic foot; gangrene

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