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J Comp Pathol. 2010 May;142(4):332-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2009.09.007. Epub 2009 Nov 7.

A grade IV glioblastoma with an oligodendroglial component (GBM-O) in a horse.

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  • 1The William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis, USA.


A 4-year-old Dutch warmblood mare was presented with a 10-month history of ataxia and proprioceptive deficits. Computed tomography defined a large, non-contrast enhancing mass in the left cerebral hemisphere. Necropsy examination revealed a tumour that effaced much of the piriform and temporal lobes. Microscopically the lesion was classified as a grade IV glioblastoma with an oligodendroglial component (GBM-O). The tumour was composed of highly pleomorphic cells organized in different patterns within a fibrillary stroma. There were multiple foci of necrosis. At the periphery of the tumour neoplastic oligodendroglioma-like cells were embedded in an extracellular mucinous matrix. Most neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein; however, the oligodendroglioma cells did not express this marker. Cells forming microvascular proliferations were positively labelled for expression of factor VIII and smooth muscle actin. All neoplastic cells were negative for Neu-N and synaptophysin. The proliferation index was up to 5%. All neoplastic cells and normal brain tissue from the horse were uniformly negative for expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFR vIII mutant and the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) compared with positive control human GBM tissue. To our knowledge this is the first report of a GBM-O in the horse.

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