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Cancer. 2010 Jan 1;116(1):164-76. doi: 10.1002/cncr.24699.

Flavonoids activated caspases for apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells but not in human normal astrocytes.

Author information

1
Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29209, USA. swapan.ray@uscmed.sc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Human glioblastoma is a deadly brain cancer that continues to defy all current therapeutic strategies. The authors induced apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells after treatment with apigenin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and genistein, which did not induce apoptosis in human normal astrocytes.

METHODS:

Induction of apoptosis was examined using Wright staining and ApopTag assay. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) were measured by fluorescent probes. Analysis of mRNA and Western blotting indicated increases in expression and activities of the stress kinases and cysteine proteases for apoptosis. JC-1 showed changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), and use of specific inhibitors confirmed activation of kinases and proteases in apoptosis.

RESULTS:

Treatment of glioblastoma cells with apigenin, (-)-epigallocatechin, EGCG, or genistein triggered ROS production that induced apoptosis with phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activation of the redox-sensitive c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 pathway. Pretreatment of cells with ascorbic acid attenuated ROS production and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Increases in intracellular free Ca2+ and activation of caspase-4 indicated involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in apoptosis. Other events in apoptosis included overexpression of Bax, loss of DeltaPsi(m), mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac into the cytosol, down-regulation of baculoviral inhibitor-of-apoptosis repeat-containing proteins, and activation of calpain, caspase-9, and caspase-3. (-)-Epigallocatechin and EGCG also induced caspase-8 activity. Apigenin, (-)-epigallocatechin, EGCG, and genistein did not induce apoptosis in human normal astrocytes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Results strongly suggest that flavonoids are potential therapeutic agents for induction of apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells.

PMID:
19894226
PMCID:
PMC3159962
DOI:
10.1002/cncr.24699
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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