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Dis Markers. 2009;27(3):121-36. doi: 10.3233/DMA-2009-0656.

Phenotype variation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission and disease progression.

Author information

1
Viral Evolution and Transmission Unit, Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. cavarelli.mariangela@hsr.it

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed.

PMID:
19893208
PMCID:
PMC3834669
DOI:
10.3233/DMA-2009-0656
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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