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Addict Behav. 2010 Mar;35(3):256-9. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.10.002. Epub 2009 Oct 20.

Perceived parental reactions and peer respect as predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

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Reykjavik University, Centre for Social Research and Analysis, School of Health and Education, Reykjavik, Iceland.


Cigarette smoking and alcohol use contribute substantially to the global burden of morbidity and premature mortality. Most use begins during adolescence, often with experimentation taking place between 11 and 15 years of age. This study examined the importance of perceived parental reactions to, and peer respect for, cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Particular attention was given to the relative importance of these variables compared with the more widely examined influences of perceived parental and peer support. Our final models explained 44% of the variance in cigarette smoking and 46% in alcohol use. Most of the explained variance in both cigarette smoking and alcohol use was accounted for by only three variables: peer use, perceived parental reaction to use, and perceived respect from peers if using. Our findings indicate that perceived parental reaction to use and peer respect for use may be important contributors to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

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