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Nature. 2009 Nov 5;462(7269):51-7. doi: 10.1038/nature08366.

Cooperation between non-kin in animal societies.

Author information

1
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB3 9EJ, UK. thcb@cam.ac.uk

Abstract

Explanations of cooperation between non-kin in animal societies often suggest that individuals exchange resources or services and that cooperation is maintained by reciprocity. But do cooperative interactions between unrelated individuals in non-human animals really resemble exchanges or are they a consequence of simpler mechanisms? Firm evidence of reciprocity in animal societies is rare and many examples of cooperation between non-kin probably represent cases of intra-specific mutualism or manipulation.

PMID:
19890322
DOI:
10.1038/nature08366
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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