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Prev Med. 2010 Jan-Feb;50(1-2):68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.10.015. Epub 2009 Oct 31.

Constructing a theoretically based set of measures for liver cancer control research studies.

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School of Public Health and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.



Measurement tools such as surveys assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors need to be theoretically consistent with interventions. The purpose of this article is to describe the first steps in the process of constructing a theoretically based set of measures that is currently used in three trials to reduce liver cancer disparities.


Guided by a common theoretical formulation-the Health Behavior Framework-we identified constructs relevant for liver cancer control research, compiled items from previous studies and constructed new items, and translated and pilot tested items in collaboration with members of the Vietnamese, Korean, and Hmong communities.


We constructed three questionnaires in Vietnamese, Hmong, and Korean languages that are slightly different due to cultural and language nuances but contain a core set of measures assessing identical constructs of the Health Behavior Framework. Initial research demonstrates that items are easily understood and that they are generally related to hepatitis B screening as expected.


Researchers are encouraged to follow a similar process for creating theory-based assessment tools. Measuring common theoretical constructs can advance liver cancer control and other health research by facilitating a more systematic comparison of findings across different populations and intervention strategies.

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