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Trends Immunol. 2010 Jan;31(1):7-17. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2009.09.003. Epub 2009 Oct 31.

T cell-microglial dialogue in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: are we listening?

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, USA. sappel@tmhs.org <sappel@tmhs.org>

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is a pathological hallmark in Parkinson's disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and is characterized by activated microglia and infiltrating T cells at sites of neuronal injury. In PD and ALS, neurons do not die alone; neuronal injury is non-cell-autonomous and depends on a well-orchestrated dialogue in which neuronally secreted misfolded proteins activate microglia and initiate a self-propagating cycle of neurotoxicity. Diverse populations and phenotypes of CD4(+) T cells crosstalk with microglia, and depending on their activation status, influence this dialogue and promote neuroprotection or neurotoxicity. A greater understanding of the T cell population that mediates these effects, as well as the molecular signals involved should provide targets for neuroprotective immunomodulation to treat these devastating neurodegenerative diseases.

PMID:
19879804
PMCID:
PMC4126423
DOI:
10.1016/j.it.2009.09.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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