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Ann Oncol. 2010 Jun;21(6):1296-301. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdp473. Epub 2009 Oct 29.

Non-risk-adapted surveillance for patients with stage I nonseminomatous testicular germ-cell tumors: diminishing treatment-related morbidity while maintaining efficacy.

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Department of Medicine, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.



With treatment leading to nearly uniform cure in clinical stage I nonseminomatous testicular cancer (CSI-NSGCT), diminishing treatment-related morbidity has become the primary concern. This study examined feasibility and outcome of active surveillance as treatment in an unselected CSI patient population.


All patients with CSI-NSGCT referred from 1998 to 2007 to the British Columbia Cancer Agency and the Oregon Testis Cancer Program were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 233 patients were identified, of which 223 chose active surveillance.


Vascular invasion (VI) was absent, present and unknown in 66%, 27% and 7% of cases, respectively. Overall, 49% of patients had embryonal predominant disease. Fifty-nine patients (26%) relapsed, all but one with good prognosis disease. VI was present in 30 relapsed patients. Most patients relapsed within 2 years (88%). Only 7 of 223 patients (3%) relapsed beyond 2 years. All relapses were in long-term remission following chemotherapy with or without retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). Only 17 of 223 patients (8%) required postorchiectomy surgery. Disease-specific survival is 100% after a median follow-up of 52 months (3-136). No patient has required second-line chemotherapy.


Active surveillance for all CSI-NSGCT patients is associated with excellent outcomes comparable with the best results reported with primary RPLND or adjuvant chemotherapy. Nearly 75% of patients are spared any therapy after orchiectomy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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