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J Oral Rehabil. 2010 Jan;37(1):26-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2009.02006.x. Epub 2009 Oct 27.

Is the reverse cycle during chewing abnormal in children with primary dentition?

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Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Field of Developmental Medicine, Course for Health Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.


The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the reverse cycle during chewing is abnormal in children with primary dentition. Children with normal primary dentition (N = 23; 5.5 +/- 0.8 years) and female adults (N = 25; 20.7 +/- 1.9 years) participated in this study. Chewing movement was recorded using an opto-electronic analysis system with six degrees-of-freedom (TRI-MET, Tokyo-shizaisha; Tokyo, Japan). Each subject was given a stick of chewing gum (new TRIDENT, WARNER-LAMBERT CO., Morris Plains, NJ, USA) and instructed to chew it normally. Starting from the maximum intercuspal position, each chewing sequence was recorded over a period of 20 s. A custom computer program identified individual chewing cycles. Frontal views were used to distinguish seven types of cycle shapes according to Ahlgren (Acta Odontol Scand, 24, 1966, 1-109; Acta Odontol Scand, 25, 1967, 3-13). Multilevel statistical models evaluated differences between children and adults. In the adults, type II cycles that initially opened towards the balancing side and then moved towards the working side were the most common, and the closing pathway was lateral to the opening pathway. In the children, type V (reverse) cycles that opened towards the working side were most common, the closing pathway was medial to the opening pathway, and there was a smaller lateral component during opening and closing than in adults (P < 0.05). We conclude that the reverse cycle is not abnormal because normal children with primary dentition have a smaller lateral component and difficulty in controlling asymmetric muscle activity.

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