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Disabil Rehabil. 2009;31(24):1980-7. doi: 10.3109/09638280902874154.

Increased mortality among individuals with chronic widespread pain relates to lifestyle factors: a prospective population-based study.

Author information

1
School of Health and Society, Kristianstad University College, Kristianstad, Sweden. ingemar.andersson@hkr.se

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Widespread chronic pain has been related to disability and loss of quality of life, but in a few epidemiological studies also to increased mortality. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between chronic pain, lifestyle factors and all cause mortality.

METHODS:

A random sample of an adult (age 25-74) Swedish population (n = 1609) responded to a comprehensive questionnaire on pain, other symptoms, lifestyle, work and socioeconomic factors in 1988. Mortality data for this cohort between 1988 and 2002 were analysed. Survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier) and Cox proportional regression were used to study initially reported factors influencing survival.

RESULTS:

Individuals with widespread chronic pain showed an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio, HR = 1.95, CI: 1.26-3.03) compared to the group without chronic pain. Death due to cardiovascular disease accounted for the increased mortality. Adjustment for lifestyle factors eliminated the excess risk.

CONCLUSIONS:

Increased mortality among individuals with widespread chronic pain is related to factors like smoking, sleep disturbances and low physical activity. The result emphasises the importance of including lifestyle factors in a cognitive-behavioural rehabilitation process. It remains to be shown whether health promotion activities aimed at lifestyle could change mortality among individuals with chronic pain.

PMID:
19874076
DOI:
10.3109/09638280902874154
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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