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Am J Med. 1991 Jan;90(1):63-9.

X-linked hypophosphatemia: skeletal mass in adults assessed by histomorphometry, computed tomography, and absorptiometry.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, Missouri 63110.

Abstract

PURPOSE AND PATIENTS AND METHODS:

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is the most common inherited form of rickets, yet its influence on skeletal mass in adulthood is controversial and incompletely characterized. Accordingly, we measured bone mass at several skeletal sites using histomorphometric and radiographic techniques in 19 adults (four men) with XLH (age range 20 to 66 years). Most subjects had not received medical therapy for XLH since puberty.

RESULTS:

Eight of 14 subjects who underwent transiliac bone biopsy had an elevated cancellous bone volume (osteoid and calcified bone), and the group's mean value was supranormal (p less than 0.01). Mineralized bone volume, however, was above normal in only three subjects (NS). Another measure of trabecular bone density, vertebral mineral density by computed tomography, was elevated in three of 13 subjects, and the mean value of the group was increased (p = 0.05). Integral spine bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) was elevated in six of 16 subjects, and the mean was also above normal (p less than 0.01). However, total body calcium, total body BMD (both by DPA), and forearm bone mineral content assessed by single photon absorptiometry (predominantly cortical bone) were normal in almost all subjects, as were the group means for these parameters. Mean regional BMD (by DPA) was below normal in the upper and lower limbs (p less than 0.001) and above normal in the spine (p less than 0.005) and ribs (p less than 0.01). There was no relationship between these indices of bone mass and either biochemical or clinical parameters of disease severity, although men tended to have higher z-scores for axial bone density than premenopausal women whose values, in turn, tended to be higher than those in postmenopausal women (NS).

CONCLUSION:

We conclude that axial bone mass tends to be increased in adults with XLH, sometimes dramatically so, and this is only partially attributable to hyperosteoidosis. Peripheral bone mass, however, tends to be diminished. Despite these group trends, most adults with untreated XLH have normal indices of bone mass as assessed by a variety of techniques at the commonly used measurement sites. These findings suggest that "osteoporotic" fractures are unlikely to develop as a late complication of XLH in adults.

PMID:
1986592
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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