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N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 29;361(18):1748-59. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0902295.

Antibiotic prophylaxis and recurrent urinary tract infection in children.

Author information

1
Screening and Test Evaluation Program and the School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Erratum in

  • N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 1;362(13):1250.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antibiotics are widely administered to children with the intention of preventing urinary tract infection, but adequately powered, placebo-controlled trials regarding efficacy are lacking. This study from four Australian centers examined whether low-dose, continuous oral antibiotic therapy prevents urinary tract infection in predisposed children.

METHODS:

We randomly assigned children under the age of 18 years who had had one or more microbiologically proven urinary tract infections to receive either daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole suspension (as 2 mg of trimethoprim plus 10 mg of sulfamethoxazole per kilogram of body weight) or placebo for 12 months. The primary outcome was microbiologically confirmed symptomatic urinary tract infection. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed with the use of time-to-event data.

RESULTS:

From December 1998 to March 2007, a total of 576 children (of 780 planned) underwent randomization. The median age at entry was 14 months; 64% of the patients were girls, 42% had known vesicoureteral reflux (at least grade III in 53% of these patients), and 71% were enrolled after the first diagnosis of urinary tract infection. During the study, urinary tract infection developed in 36 of 288 patients (13%) in the group receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic group) and in 55 of 288 patients (19%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the antibiotic group, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.93; P = 0.02 by the log-rank test). In the antibiotic group, the reduction in the absolute risk of urinary tract infection (6 percentage points) appeared to be consistent across all subgroups of patients (P > or = 0.20 for all interactions).

CONCLUSIONS:

Long-term, low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a decreased number of urinary tract infections in predisposed children. The treatment effect appeared to be consistent but modest across subgroups. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12608000470392.)

PMID:
19864673
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa0902295
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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