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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 10;106(45):18936-41. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0908842106. Epub 2009 Oct 28.

Poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] is a potent adjuvant for intradermal immunization.

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Apogee Technology, Inc., 129 Morgan Drive, Norwood, MA 02062, USA.


Intradermal immunization using microfabricated needles represents a potentially powerful technology, which can enhance immune responses and provide antigen sparing. Solid vaccine formulations, which can be coated onto microneedle patches suitable for simple administration, can also potentially offer improved shelf-life. However the approach is not fully compatible with many vaccine adjuvants including alum, the most common adjuvant used in the vaccine market globally. Here, we introduce a polyphosphazene immuno adjuvant as a biologically potent and synergistic constituent of microneedle-based intradermal immunization technology. Poly[di(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene], PCPP, functions both as a vaccine adjuvant and as a key microfabrication material. When used as part of an intradermal delivery system for hepatitis B surface antigen, PCPP demonstrates superior activity in pigs compared to intramascular administration and significant antigen sparing potential. It also accelerates the microneedle fabrication process and reduces its dependence on the use of surfactants. In this way, PCPP-coated microneedles may enable effective intradermal vaccination from an adjuvanted patch delivery system.

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