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J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Nov;109(11):1878-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.08.015.

Differences in fruit and vegetable intake among Hispanic subgroups in California: results from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey.

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Health Promotion Research Branch, Behavioral Research Program, Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, National Cancer Institute/NIH, 6130 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-7344, USA.



To compare total fruit and vegetable intake in cup equivalents and its individual components among Hispanic subgroups in California.


Data are from the adult portion of the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Hispanic/Latino subjects (n=7,954) were grouped into six subcategories (Mexican, Central American, Caribbean, Spanish American, South American, and >1 group). Total fruit and vegetable intake in cup equivalents was estimated from frequency responses about seven food categories. Both t test and chi(2) test were used to assess differences in sociodemographic characteristics across Hispanic subgroups. Multivariate linear regressions using SUDAAN software (Survey Data Analysis, version 9.0.1, 2005, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC) were conducted to obtain means of total fruit and vegetable intake in cup equivalents and its components by Hispanic subgroups controlling for confounders.


Hispanic subgroups did not differ in their intake of total fruit and vegetable intake in cup equivalents (mean 3.4 c and 2.9 c for men and women, respectively). Small but significant differences (P<0.01) were found across Hispanic subgroups in individual fruit and vegetable components (green salad [women only], cooked dried beans and nonfried white potatoes) after adjusting for potential sociodemographic and acculturation confounders.


Fruit and vegetable intake by Hispanic respondents did not meet the national recommendation, although their reported intake is higher compared to other race/ethnicity groups. The public health message remains the same: Increase fruit and vegetable intake. Examination of intake for subgroups of Hispanics may enhance the utility of dietary information for surveillance, program and message design, and intervention and evaluation.

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