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Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010 Jan;10(1):19-28. doi: 10.1517/14712590903321421.

Therapeutic vaccines in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: principles in clinical trial design.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Room 8B09, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Abstract

Although docetaxel was approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in 2004, additional therapies are still required. Prostate cancer is often slow-growing and expresses many tumor-associated antigens, making it a feasible target for immunotherapy. Several therapeutic cancer vaccines have been developed for prostate cancer, including antigen-presenting-cell-based, vector-based, and whole tumor cell vaccines. Initial trials demonstrated that vaccine approaches have limited toxicity. Clinical trials of targeted biologic therapies have demonstrated that patient selection is vital, and there is preliminary evidence that clinical parameters can be used to encompass metastatic prostate cancer patients who will more probably respond to vaccine treatment. In addition to appropriate patient selection, a successful clinical trial must have an appropriate primary endpoint as well. Three randomized, 'placebo'-controlled studies in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have suggested a clinically significant survival advantage in spite of a lack of improvement in time to progression, implying that overall survival is the ideal endpoint for such trials. Careful examination of data from completed immunotherapy clinical trials in prostate cancer has identified appropriate patient populations and endpoints. Those principles need to be applied to future trial design to properly evaluate prostate cancer vaccines.

PMID:
19857185
DOI:
10.1517/14712590903321421
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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